what does sonar stand for

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These were big and heavy, especially if designed for lower frequencies; the one for Type 91 set, operating at 9 kHz, had a diameter of 30 inches (760 mm) and was driven by an oscillator with 5 kW power and 7 kV of output amplitude. High-speed propellers often create tiny bubbles in the water, and this cavitation has a distinct sound. One such device is the Cerberus system. Mine countermeasure (MCM) sonar, sometimes called "mine and obstacle avoidance sonar (MOAS)", is a specialized type of sonar used for detecting small objects. In 1991 the mission of the system was declassified.

Fixed to the headline of the net, the footrope can usually be seen which gives an indication of the net performance. Therefore, the power of the reflected signal is very low, several orders of magnitude less than the original signal. [26] To measure the bearing, several hydrophones are used, and the set measures the relative arrival time to each, or with an array of hydrophones, by measuring the relative amplitude in beams formed through a process called beamforming. A similar system is believed to have been operated by the Soviet Union.

The net sounder is an echo sounder with a transducer mounted on the headline of the net rather than on the bottom of the vessel.

It noted that in the Canary Islands where multiple strandings had been previously reported, no more mass strandings had occurred once naval exercises during which sonar was used were banned in the area, and recommended that the ban be extended to other areas where mass strandings continue to occur. On leave from Bell Labs, he served the government as a technical expert, first at the experimental station at Nahant, Massachusetts, and later at US Naval Headquarters, in London, England.

Modern versions of the net sounder, using multiple element transducers, function more like a sonar than an echo sounder and show slices of the area in front of the net and not merely the vertical view that the initial net sounders used. Until recently, ship sonars were usually with hull mounted arrays, either amidships or at the bow. To measure the distance to an object, the time from transmission of a pulse to reception is measured and converted into a range using the known speed of sound.

showing only Information Technology definitions . This can help to identify its nationality, as all European submarines and nearly every other nation's submarine have 50 Hz power systems.

[23] When more transmitters (or more receivers) are used, again spatially separated, it is multistatic operation. When active sonar is used by surface ships or submarines, it is typically activated very briefly at intermittent periods to minimize the risk of detection. A secondary objective was examination of engineering problems of fixed active bottom systems. Magnetostrictive transducers were pursued after World War II as an alternative to piezoelectric ones. The density effect is small. [8], The Canadian engineer Reginald Fessenden, while working for the Submarine Signal Company in Boston, Massachusetts, built an experimental system beginning in 1912, a system later tested in Boston Harbor, and finally in 1914 from the U.S. Revenue Cutter Miami on the Grand Banks off Newfoundland. If the entire signal is reflected from a 10 m2 target, it will be at 0.001 W/m2 when it reaches the emitter, i.e.

Sound-absorbent coatings on the hulls of submarines, for example. [24] Active sonobuoy fields may be operated multistatically.
Long-range sonar uses low frequencies to minimise absorption effects. The figure of merit of a passive sonar is. Any evasive action was detected by the directing ship and steering orders to the attacking ship given accordingly. To simplify, passive sonar "sees" around the ship using it. [5], The use of sound to "echo-locate" underwater in the same way as bats use sound for aerial navigation seems to have been prompted by the Titanic disaster of 1912. As a result, the carbon button microphone, which had been used in earlier detection equipment, was replaced by the precursor of the modern hydrophone. Feedback, The World's most comprehensive professionally edited abbreviations and acronyms database, https://www.acronymfinder.com/Information-Technology/SONAR.html, Symantec Online Network for Advanced Response. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The first recorded use of the technique was by Leonardo da Vinci in 1490 who used a tube inserted into the water to detect vessels by ear.

With surface ships, it might be assumed that the threat is already tracking the ship with satellite data as any vessel around the emitting sonar will detect the emission. What does SONAR stand for? Natural seeps of methane and carbon dioxide occur. [7][9] In that test, Fessenden demonstrated depth sounding, underwater communications (Morse code) and echo ranging (detecting an iceberg at a 2-mile, 3.2 km range). What is the difference btw passive and active? The analog signals are decoded and converted by a digital acoustic receiver into data which is transmitted to a bridge computer for graphical display on a high resolution monitor. The sonar hydrophones may be towed behind the ship or submarine in order to reduce the effect of noise generated by the watercraft itself. [10][11] The "Fessenden oscillator", operated at about 500 Hz frequency, was unable to determine the bearing of the iceberg due to the 3-metre wavelength and the small dimension of the transducer's radiating face (less than ​1⁄3 wavelength in diameter). List of 16 SONAR definitions. Research on the effects of sonar on blue whales in the Southern California Bight shows that mid-frequency sonar use disrupts the whales' feeding behavior. Information regarding size, abundance, and movement of the fish is now displayed in many colours, provides the skipper with a wide range of scales, and enables him….

An early example of an acoustic homer was the Mark 37 torpedo. Parametric sources use the non-linearity of water to generate the difference frequency between two high frequencies. Surface ships use it to good effect; it is even better used by submarines, and it is also used by airplanes and helicopters, mostly to a "surprise effect", since submarines can hide under thermal layers. This made possible new designs, e.g. B. A variation of the creeping attack was the "plaster" attack, in which 3 attacking ships working in a close line abreast were directed over the target by the directing ship.[15].

Lightweight sound-sensitive plastic film and fibre optics have been used for hydrophones, while Terfenol-D and PMN (lead magnesium niobate) have been developed for projectors. He held this position until 1959 when he became technical director, a position he held until mandatory retirement in 1963.[18][19]. This acoustic scattering is analogous to the scattering of the light from a car's headlights in fog: a high-intensity pencil beam will penetrate the fog to some extent, but broader-beam headlights emit much light in unwanted directions, much of which is scattered back to the observer, overwhelming that reflected from the target ("white-out"). An explanation of their operation is given in synthetic aperture sonar. This decision device may be an operator with headphones or a display, or in more sophisticated sonars this function may be carried out by software. As the cod-end fills up these catch sensor transducers are triggered one by one and this information is transmitted acoustically to display monitors on the bridge of the vessel. A widely used US device was the towed AN/SLQ-25 Nixie while the mobile submarine simulator (MOSS) was a free device. The Imperial Japanese Navy at the onset of World War II used projectors based on quartz. Passive sonar listens without transmitting. the speed of a ship, or the type of weapon released), and even particular ships. An example of a modern active-passive ship towed sonar is Sonar 2087 made by Thales Underwater Systems. This is generally done using a Fourier transform to show the different frequencies making up the sound.

", "Clutter suppression and classification using twin inverted pulse sonar in ship wakes", "How The Soviet Akula Changed Submarine Warfare", "SOSUS The "Secret Weapon" of Undersea Surveillance", "Integrated Undersea Surveillance System (IUSS) History 1950 - 2010", "Very High Resolution Imaging Diver Held Sonar", "NOAA Ocean Explorer: Echo Sounding Reading", "This Suit Gives You A Real Life Spider-Sense", "Quantification of undersea gas leaks from carbon capture and storage facilities, from pipelines and from methane seeps, by their acoustic emissions", "Detection and impacts of leakage from sub-seafloor deep geological carbon dioxide storage", "Passive acoustic quantification of gas fluxes during controlled gas release experiments", "Review of Offshore Monitoring for CCS Projects", "Review of offshore CO2 storage monitoring: Operational and research experiences of meeting regulatory and technical requirements", "Review of scattering and extinction cross-sections, damping factors, and resonance frequencies of a spherical gas bubble", "Acoustic and related waves in extraterrestrial environments", "Sonar equations for planetary exploration", "The problems with acoustics on a small planet", "Acoustic attenuation, phase and group velocities in liquid-filled pipes II: Simulation for Spallation Neutron Sources and planetary exploration", "Fluid loading effects for acoustical sensors in the atmospheres of Mars, Venus, Titan, and Jupiter", "Near resonant bubble acoustic cross-section corrections, including examples from oceanography, volcanology, and biomedical ultrasound", "The opportunities and challenges in the use of extra-terrestrial acoustics in the exploration of the oceans of icy planetary bodies", "Whales flee from military sonar leading to mass strandings, research shows", "First direct measurements of behavioural responses by Cuvier's beaked whales to mid-frequency active sonar", "Blue whales respond to simulated mid-frequency military sonar", "What caused the UK's largest common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) mass stranding event? What does SONAR stand for in text In sum, SONAR is an acronym or abbreviation word that is defined in simple language.


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