supernatural beliefs in different cultures

Next participants completed the SBS, along with frequency measures of religious behavior, in particular how frequently they prayed, attended church/holy mass, and took communion. The potential downside is that large and complex matrices can be prone to poor model fit and improper solutions [36]. If you do, that plan will have obstacles that prevent you from going. It is unlikely that these specific intercepts will be affected again in future cross-cultural studies. We underscore the necessity, and at the same time the value, of inspecting cross-cultural measurement invariance of scales in research on religion. They believe that such design won’t allow the witches and bad spirits to fly through the window. While the SBS may still be more suitable for some religious or cultural contexts (e.g., those that include worship of high gods) than others, those contexts include the vast majority of the world’s religious people. Table 2 displays the frequency of the religious activities as a function of religious domination. In South Korea, sleeping in the room alone with a fan nearby can kill you. The current research focuses on the assumption of measurement invariance when assessing supernatural belief: (a) We test the translatability and cross-cultural applicability of the SBS, taking two “Western” countries–one from the Northern, one from the Southern Hemisphere–as a starting point; (b) we provide stringent evidence for its convergent validity in terms of self-peer-agreement; to do so (c) we present a new measurement invariance testing strategy that accommodates the dependent nature of self- and peer-data. More importantly cross-religious research may discover stronger group differences when involving non-Western or non-Abrahamic religious contexts. Given the universal relevance of supernatural beliefs and the methodological intricacies involved in assessing them, establishing whether supernatural beliefs can be assessed validly across contexts is essential. Estimates below .60 are generally considered too low; values around .70 may be acceptable for exploratory studies and group experiments; values around .80 are recommended for reliable interindividual differences in basic research, and .90 (with .95 desirable) is recommended for applied test use if crucial individual decisions are at stake [96, 97]. Our approach also resembles the longitudinal CFA setup used for (auto-)correlated data collected across time, given that data reveal something about the same individual [67, 107]. According to self-reported ethnic background (multiple nominations were possible), the majority of the sample had a European/Caucasian heritage (approx. Bennett said these rituals are a way that societies around the world have found to cope with grief, particularly from the loss of a loved one. The high quality of the SBS allows researchers to compare correlations, unstandardized regression coefficients, and standardized effect sizes from experiments across the two cultures under consideration. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. This recognition has led to the proliferation of multidimensional measures of religion, which attempt to capture multiple facets of religion within a single scale.

The SBS provides a reliable, valid, and useful measure of religiosity in the cultural context in which it was developed. The prior conclusion of metric invariance was justified, although the loadings of content facets could not be tested in the metric invariance model (MI2) on the basis of M4. It may appear as though the SBS enjoys high convergent validity, as SBS scores are strongly correlated with other self-report measures of religiosity (e.g., identity, behavior), but these correlations may be over-inflated by same-source biases introduced by self-presentation and introspective limits. This scale already requires an elaborated measurement model to reflect the influence of diverse belief elements on general belief tendencies. This uniqueness invariance model fitted the data well. There has, in the past two decades, been burgeoning interest in the scientific study of religion as a psychological universal. Hypothesizing a unidimensional structure for supernatural belief, Jong and colleagues [11] tested eight alternative measurements models (Models M1-M8; see S1–S8 Figs) via a rigorous confirmatory factor analytic approach (CFA) on the SBS. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0164291.g003. They believe so because their ancient King, Tsar Alexander II was murdered by a person who carried an empty bucket. One naming scheme for the degrees of measurement invariance is weak, strong, strict factorial invariance, after which follows the inspection of full invariance or structural invariance [25]. The configural invariance model serves as a baseline model for further MI-tests. Metric invariance, not to mention scalar invariance, is a requirement that too often is difficult to satisfy in cross-cultural research [45, 126]. If measurement invariance between self- and peer-ratings can be established, we can interpret the correlations between self- and peer-ratings as further indications of convergent validity of the SBS.

In our sample, the average supernatural belief tendency in Croatia was practically of the same magnitude as the one in New Zealand. ?� ���Q�]�t�%/���wv�Dr_E��$2ygO{��֔Qw� ��������!

Within the complex SBS structure, when the latent supernatural belief factor is optimally assessed, the construct reliability amounted to Ωw = .96; the reliability of the total scale composite was Ω = .95. Table 1). To do this, we compared a configural invariance model with parameters for residual self-peer covariances constrained at zero to a model with those parameters unconstrained. As diverse kinship structures produce different forms of conflict and competition within societies, they may lead to differing levels of belief in witchcraft (a possible mechanism for damaging the reputation of competitors). Despite claims about the universality of religious belief, whether religiosity scales have the same meaning when administered inter-subjectively–or translated and applied cross-culturally–is currently unknown. Some psychologists, such as Boyer, have put forward the idea that supernatural beliefs arose through culture alone and that religious ideas are pervasive because they are counterintuitive—they violate the mind's understanding of the world, which in fact makes them easier to remember. The benefit of using the SBS over religious self-categorization, or religious denomination, is evident from comparing the correlations computed separately for Christians and Atheists/Agnostics. Yes

The ethical principles as laid out by the WMA Declaration of Helsinki (2013), binding for medical research, were observed. If these rituals aren’t performed, those possessed can become paralyzed and fall into extreme depressions, Bennett said. In contrast, the SBS specifically targets supernatural belief; it may therefore be used alongside measures of spiritual well-being or religious orientation, identity, behavior, and experience, but should not be confused for a proxy for those aspects of religiosity. In Spain along with Spanish-speaking countries as well as Greece, Tuesday 13th is the unlucky day. These biases have implications for evaluations of the convergent validity of any self-report measure, insofar as criteria are also based on self-report [58]. 0. The strongest consensus emerged for the belief in a high god; the weakest consensus for the belief in supernatural messengers (i.e., prophets). Hence lower BIC values indicate a better trade-off between fit and complexity. Participants were recruited at the Croatian colleague‘s research institution. The bias appears to be not too severe. In the US and Canada, ‘stepping on a crack will break your mother’s back’. PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, In cross-cultural research, it is often assumed that equivalence at the initial stages (factor form and loadings) is sufficient to determine whether a construct can be assessed invariantly across cultural groups [43], because levels beyond metric invariance are often difficult to achieve [40, 42, 44]. Tobayck … Second, ours is also the first attempt to examine measurement invariance across self- and peer-ratings of supernatural belief.

We suggest measurement invariance tests that account for the statistical dependency of such dyadic data [33]. Religious cosmologies provide “big picture” explanations for how human … On the basis of modification indices, we gradually allowed a few select parameters to differ freely across groups [45]. Psychological Institute, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitän Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany, Affiliation We conclude that, by not accounting for the dyadic dependency, and applying standard MGCFA to dyadic data instead, one would violate the independence assumption. Both have a similar number of residents and can be considered–in many regards–“Western” countries. As depicted in Table 4, the configural invariance test was unproblematic. Though they had been freely estimated up to here, the SBS measurement model M4 requires testing their equality across groups. As Chen writes, “Otherwise, it is not certain whether group differences on factor means are attributable to valid cultural differences or to measurement artifacts” [28] (p.1006). As we grow up, we have heard a lot of strange superstitious beliefs from our friends and family. Practically speaking, the degree of noninvariance was small so that scale means approximated the information contained in latent factor means. Experiments examined whether donations to religious and secular organisations were more motivated by 1) reputational concerns in a ‘public’ condition or 2) fear of supernatural punishment in a ‘private’ condition. Furthermore, the assessment of supernatural belief was equally reliable in both cultures, so that even manifest correlation coefficients at the level of observed SBS composite scores may be compared. $���TfOEDŽ4�4�/�h��A��8r�Znט���D+9���G�\ In the end, except for two noninvariant intercepts that did not introduce strong bias on the total scale, the SBS exhibited full measurement invariance across the two cultures.

paired and unpaired t-tests), so the fact that MI held for self- vs. peer-data is reassuring for the validity of this DGCFA approach. For both AIC and BIC, differences in information criteria greater than +10 provide “strong evidence” against equal fit of the models in question [91].

The SBS was explicitly designed to be amenable to translation and cross-cultural adaptation.

Is the Subject Area "Religion" applicable to this article? Whereas from the present cross-cultural comparison we tentatively conclude that applying the SBS across cultures with similar religious backgrounds should be mostly unproblematic, other and more adjustments to the psychometric parameters may be necessary as the cultural backgrounds get more dissimilar. What if the model fit does not support invariance at one level? A better way is to accommodate unequal parameters within the CFA framework. That is because the belief is that singing at night is like singing for the evil spirits. October 30, 2019. Mplus provides MLR for maximum likelihood with robust ‘Huber-White’ standard errors and a scaled test statistic asymptotically equivalent to the Yuan–Bentler T2* statistic [73–75] and similar to the robust Satorra–Bentler scaled χ2-statistic (MLM [76, 77]).

In the initial step, we used CFA to compare previously developed models (see S1–S8 Figs for models M1 to M8) to ascertain the best measurement model for the Croatian SBS (cf. The correlation may reflect self-peer agreement that is slightly biased upward due to a holistic interpretation of how much an individual conforms to a stereotypical Croatian. London The (MLR-corrected) scaled-χ2 difference-test was statistically and substantially significant, Δχ2(10) = 148.02, p < .001. In the context of dyads, unequal intercepts might reflect differential evaluation apprehension or modesty norms that may not apply to informant-ratings on others’ religious beliefs.

Copyright: © 2016 Bluemke et al. As diverse kinship structures produce different forms of conflict and competition within societies, they may lead to differing levels of belief in witchcraft (a possible mechanism for damaging the reputation of … Different parts of the world have different beliefs and rules that maintain their religion.

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