strengths and weaknesses of the legislative process
requests for their budgets to be considered by the LBB. Since World War II, presidents have never asked Congress for (or received) a declaration of war. Presidents aim at legislative accomplishments by negotiating with legislators directly or through their legislative liaison officers: White House staffers assigned to deal with Congress who provide a conduit from president to Congress and back again. A Ford legislative liaison officer recalled, “We never deliberately sat down and made the decision that we would veto sixty bills in two years.…It was the only alternative” (Light, 1999). While the strength of the budgetary process is in the number of agencies and people who develop the budget, the weakness is in the ability, post-ratification, of parties to alter the legislation. The president’s speechwriters are involved in the organization and contents of the speech (Schlesinger, 2008). Opportunities to act on behalf of the entire nation in international affairs are irresistible to presidents. The. For example, candidate Obama promised to deal with the problems of the economy, unemployment, housing, health care, Iraq, Afghanistan, and much more. The following table explains how the clear strengths of a parliamentary system in Australia […] Texas’ budgetary process is further. President Obama has been just as if not more involved in foreign policy than his predecessors. A president’s opportunities to influence public policies depend in part on the preceding administration and the political circumstances under which the new president takes office (Skowronek, 2008). Because the government and media report the inflation and unemployment rates and the number of new jobs created (or not created), the public is consistently reminded of these measures when judging the president’s handling of the economy. As the chief executive, the president gets things done through the appointment powers, executive orders, and war powers. He did claim that the executive branch could bypass what he deemed to be unconstitutional restraints on executive power. Presidents face contradictory expectations, even demands, from the public: to be an ordinary person yet display heroic qualities, to be nonpolitical yet excel (unobtrusively) at the politics required to get things done, to be a visionary leader yet respond to public opinion (Cronin & Genovese, 2009). Mackenzie, G. C., The Politics of Presidential Appointments (New York: Free Press, 1981), especially chap. Once in office, reality sinks in. After reading this section, you should be able to answer the following questions: The political system was designed by the framers to be infrequently innovative, to act with neither efficiency nor dispatch. Hines, C. N., “Lag in Appointments Strains the Cabinet,” New York Times, June 14, 2001, A20. Presidents both hire and (with the exception of regulatory commissions) fire executive officers. Cronin, T. E. and Michael A. Genovese, The Paradoxes of the American Presidency, 3rd ed. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999), 89. A nominee may be stopped in a committee. Presidents are charged by Congress with proposing an annual budget. Bennet, J., “True to Form, Clinton Shifts Energies Back to U.S. Focus,” New York Times, July 5, 1998, 10. Strengths: The primary strength of the Texas budget system is that there are many agencies and individuals whose input is considered and incorporated into the budgetary process, which involves both developing budgets and appropriations legislation. Vetoes alienate members of Congress who worked hard crafting a bill. The original document had twelve amendments. The principles of the Constitution remain strong to this day, especially with respect to our government, Perhaps the greatest document of all time, the Constitution of the United States of America was not easily created. This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 5 pages. How do presidents use their veto power? Normally, the committee chair chooses the proposal that will be placed before the committee for markup: a referred bill or a new draft text. In their speeches, presidents celebrate, express national emotion, educate, advocate, persuade, and attack. Such a visible threat encouraged a public perception that Bush was opposed to any patients’ bill of rights, or even to patients’ rights at all (Bruni, 2001). At this meeting, which is typically open to the public, members of the committee consider possible changes to the proposal by offering and voting on amendments to it, including possibly a complete substitute for its text. They use their ceremonial position as head of state to get into the news and gain public approval, making it easier to persuade others to follow their lead. The slogan may have originated with the ship’s commander or sailors, but the Bush people designed and placed it perfectly for the cameras and choreographed the scene. They also speak to control the executive branch by publicizing their thematic focus, ushering along appointments, and issuing executive orders (Grossman & Kumar, 1980; Maltese, 1992). The president’s constitutional responsibility to inform Congress on “the state of the union” has been elevated into a performance, nationally broadcast on all major networks and before a joint session on Capitol Hill, that summarizes the key items on his policy agenda. They write for ease of delivery, the cadence of the president’s voice, mannerisms of expression, idioms, pace, and timing.


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