role of social media in arab spring pdf

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Indeed, media coverage of the Arab spring tended to popularize the social media, aspect of the struggle, with many news outlets focusing on the role of T. in the revolutions. (2004: 6) assert that it is possible to organize existing, definitions of social movements around five main axes: (1) ‘collective or joint action’; (2). 6 0 obj me that he had gone to the demonstrations. It was also these relationships that, developed through the virtual ethnography that formed the basis of investigative, collaborations that were important in identifying potential surveillance tactics used by, hegemonic forces. [250 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 333] An example of his impact was revealed to me by one, My friend she left the country after her husband who works in a bank. /StemV 41 Its front, to his memory. But building a, democratic media system requires more than dismantling state propaganda apparatus, and ensuring the independence of media outlets and their functioning.

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/Type /FontDescriptor But since the phones were switched off I was just, doing one thing and I am concentrating on what I am doing and there, is no distraction I continue until the end … and sometimes when I go to, protest I turn my phone off … (interview, Cairo, 5 September 2011), The kill switch facilitated the development of a thick face-to-face experience that, was crucial in sustaining collective action for several days in T, Cairo, in which it did not seem to matter too much to people that they did not have, internet connection or working mobile phones. [250 0 0 0 0 0 0 214 333 333 0 0 250 333 250 0 500 500 500 0 500 0 0 0 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 611 0 667 722 611 611 722 0 333 444 667 0 833 667 0 611 0 611 500 556 722 0 833 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500 500 444 500 444 0 500 500 278 278 0 278 722 500 500 500 0 389 389 278 500 444 667 0 444 389 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500] In so doing, the article proposes, various conceptual and analytical perspectives that can help future researchers deal, with the multiple intersections between collective action and social media in the, agonistic public sphere, alternative media, Arab spring, internet, social media, social movements, On 10 February 2010, Wael Ghonim, a prominent figure of Egypt’, movement, tweeted ‘mission accomplished.

This was because I was a supervisor at ‘Araa, Academy’, a project funded by BBC Media Action in Syria to train journalists on how, The Syrian regime targeted people who photographed the protests and killed, them; we saw so many videos in which the cameraman was killed or injured while, shooting. psychological operations, information intervention, and strategic public diplomacy’ (Bakir, 2010: 8). /Ascent 891 facebook.com/souriatna (accessed August 2012). /Descent -216 This permits the creation of networks of trust and, in the Egyptian case, the fostering, a network of resistance against the Mubarak regime. © 2013 by Middle East Research and Information Project. information, but also and more importantly to compete in the production of information, narratives and frames that are recreating collective identities and the meanings of, personhood and citizenship. Until recently. According to Melucci (1994: 101), conflicts now ‘tend to arise in those, areas of the system that are most directly involved in the production of information, and communicative resources but at the same time subjected to intense pressure, of integration’.

Any window to freedom of, speech, however small, was shut down lest it become a threat. empowerment and control, the continuation of which underlines the argument that. It is an established fact that internet and social media constituted crucial, mobilizing devices to publicize the demonstrations of 25 January, and in motivating, people to join (Wilson and Dunn, 2011). taking place regarding the formation of the Syrian National Council. According to the latter view, social movements can be defined as ‘networks of, informal relationships between a multiplicity of individuals and organizations, who, (Diani, 2000b: 387). Using empirical research conducted with online activists, the article Tiring of this, T, she just tweet under a separate or anonymous identity, many international journalists or activists reporting on Bahrain to write/blog about, Following the release of the BICI report on 23 November 2011, Al-Jazeera reporter, Gregg Carlstrom tweeted: ‘Bahrain has by far the hardest-working T, era of freedom in #Bahrain’. In fact, the determining factor of the demonstrations’ success was the ability of the, activists to attract people onto the streets – something that David Faris (2010) had. They, consist of a network of young volunteers who, began to organize, report on and photograph, protests, and to post their reports and photos, online and disseminate them to pan-Arab and.

While it may appear logical, even obvious, demonstrations, there remains a lack of concrete evidence. They were staring at our faces, trying to distinguish and memorize, the faces of the protesters.

reflects on the highly complex and ambivalent relation between offline collective emerged, including human rights movements, gay and lesbian rights movements. Olton, the British company offering expertise in social media, also offers a ‘reputation, management’ service. Given that the uprising in Bahrain has not succeeded in achieving regime change, it, both dissent and dissenters in the months following 14 February. but even the use of the notion of public sphere remains insufficiently problematized. ��Z����=���=�̛�t�g��V6��X�v̌I�Ѝ� �9��4��"����t�Z��*wٽ�v�Bh(da��j���Y5A[Q�"/���e���=!d�~uW�&[�eVm&�|`�*٪�8r���q}�~�>��h/�����b�!.�"�6s1��ƏHx�,V�?��9�/�oV֏����� �[P�@���E>0��o���Yc�}�� �����u��6U��X��{e�7 information channels opposed to the interests of the activists. 23 0 obj ! 39 0 obj Hamilton, for instance, maintains that if communication is ‘the means by which, social relations are constituted and practiced’, alternative media ‘must also enable, alternative communication, which … make[s] possible the articulation of a social, order different from and often opposed to the dominant [one]’ (2000: 362). Available at: Virtual Methods: Issues in Social Research on the Internet, Netnography: Doing Ethnographic Research Online, http://english.al-akhbar.com/content/omar-edelbi-, Arab Elites: Negotiating the Politics of Change, Democracy and Authoritarianism in the Arab World. /Length1 371980 DESMUKH F (2010) The internet in Bahrain: breaking the monopoly of information. In addition to this, at least 30 Shia religious structures, were torn down. endobj Mitchell’s (1991) work on Egypt draws heavily, on the work of Michel Foucault, who outlined the importance of the power differential, within the context of the ‘unseen’.

posts/2010/09/21/bahrain_government_vs_the_internet, DESMUKH F (2011a) British intelligence gathering firm assists Bahraini regime amidst. endobj I recalled how, when the Egyptian regime blocked T, off the internet from some areas in Cairo, I stepped up, along with a group of Syrian, bloggers, to help them reach out to the rest of the Egyptian population and the world, by creating a special blog that posted the news of what happened in Cairo around, the clock. However, is this change real? Syrian.Intellectuals (accessed August 2012). mobility on the ground, starting from the Facebook campaign ‘We Are All Khaled Said’ This change appears after more than four decades of complete blockage and domination of public mass media, the rise to power of Bachar al-Asad in 2000 having opened his way towards the private sector. In Bahrain, Yemen, and Syria, protests and violence continued throughout 2012 to shake what were once assumed to be the solid foundations of long-standing autocratic regimes. The Arab Spring through the Lens of Social Movement Theory, The emergence of oppositional social movements in the region is not a recent, occurrence.

The surge of users generated by protests on the street, resulted in a proliferation of interactions online, the basis of which was often the, political context that inspired the user to join. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere.

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