lewis henry morgan wiki
He asserted that the people had to use government action to rein in the power of large corporations. His report of the Railroad Committee attacked both Vanderbilt and Gould. [25], In 1853 Mary's father died, leaving her a large inheritance. The Grant administration is universally regarded as inept in Indian affairs as well as have been rife with corruption. They had eight more children, including Lewis. The latter attempted to raise an Iroquois regiment but was denied, on the grounds that he was not a US citizen, and denied service on the same ground. They held mass meetings, circulated a general petition, and spoke to congressmen in Washington. Lewis Morgan joined in 1839. In 1846 a general convention of the population of Genesee County, New York sent Morgan to Congress with a counter-offer. He spent the next few years between Washington, lobbying for the sale of the land to his company, and in large cities such as Detroit and Chicago, where he fought lawsuits to prevent competitors from taking it. Vanderbilt just escaped ruin. In addition, the US government granted some plots in western New York to Revolutionary veterans as compensation for their service in the war. The Ganowánian family (Morgan assumed that all the languages of the Americas were related and grouped them under this label); and III. Lewis Henry Morgan (21 novembre 1818 – 17 décembre 1881) est un anthropologue américain. In addition, he and Mary would leave their estate to the University of Rochester for the foundation of a women's college.[30]. He was seeking appointment by the President of the United States as Commissioner of the new Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). Lewis' grandfather, Thomas Morgan of Connecticut, had been a Continental soldier in the Revolutionary War. [8], After graduating in 1840, Morgan returned to Aurora to read the law with an established firm. I have not shed a tear. The curriculum continued study of classics combined with science, especially mechanics and optics. Materials relating to Morgan's writings are held in a special collection at the University of Rochester library. In part, this was an effort to create a structure for North American history that was comparable to the three-age system of European pre-history, which had been developed as an evidence-based system by the Danish antiquarian Christian Jürgensen Thomsen in the 1830s; his work Ledetraad til Nordisk Oldkyndighed (Guideline to Scandinavian Antiquity) was published in English in 1848. He made four expeditions, two to the Plains tribes of Kansas and Nebraska, and two more up the Missouri River past Yellowstone. He immediately appealed to the state government.[39]. He believed that equality of the sexes is a mark of advanced civilization. [36], Morgan took up trout fishing during his Michigan period. Morgan studied classical subjects at Cayuga Academy: Latin, Greek, rhetoric and mathematics. In other cases, they raided white settlements for food or attacked them seeking to repel the invaders. Daniel Drew, Erie's treasurer, defended successfully by creating new stock, which he had his friends sold short, dropping the value of the stock. It included a dinner for 40 persons, who were by that time the leading lights of Rochester. In the late 1850s and 1860s, Morgan collected kinship data from a variety of Native American tribes. Morgan's role, such as it was, was that of citizen activist. Morgan expanded his research far beyond the Iroquois. [42], In 1879 Morgan completed two construction projects. The "descriptive" system had separate terms for each specific type of kinship relation, whereas the "classificatory" systems grouped several different relationship types under a single term, as for example in Iroquois where a father's brother is described with the term for father and mother's sisters are described with the term for mother. He and his wife already had three sons, including Jedediah, the future father of Lewis; and a daughter. Franz Boas reacted against the social evolutionism in Morgan's work, but the Boasian cultural anthropology also saw the study of kinship systems and social organization as central. Morgan's standard of higher or lower is not clearly expressed. Building on the data about kinship and social organization presented in his 1871 Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Family, Morgan develops his theory of the three stages of human progress, i.e., from Savagery through Barbarism to Civilization. Elected a state senator, Morgan supported the construction of the Erie Canal, which opened in 1825. This article places words and phrases quoted from Morgan in Italics, rather than quotes, for the reader's visual convenience. Lincoln explained that the post had already been exchanged by his campaign manager for political support. New members underwent a secret rite called inindianation in which they were transformed spiritually into Iroquois. In his quest to do comparative kinship studies, Morgan also corresponded with scholars, missionaries, US Indian agents, colonial agents, and military officers around the world. Morgan referred to this event as cutting the knot. As an adult, he adopted the middle initial "H." [4] Morgan later decided that this H, if anything, stood for "Henry".[5]. At the same time, he presented a sophisticated schema of social evolution based upon the relationship terms, the categories of kinship, used by peoples around the world. The American Indian Wars were raging at the time, making the Western territories a dangerous place to travel. Two of three of my children are taken. Morgan. In 1878 he conducted one final field trip, leading a small party in search of native ruins in the American Southwest. He traced the interplay between the evolution of technology, of family relations, of property relations, of the larger social structures and systems of governance, and intellectual development. Karl Marx read both Systems and Morgan's subsequent book Ancient Society (1877) which built on and extended the arguments of the previous one. Thus ends my last expedition. Volume one. After a brief sojourn on the 5-man board of the Iron Mountain Railroad, Morgan joined them in creating the Bay de Noquet and Marquette Railroad Company, connecting the entire Upper Peninsula by a single, ore-bearing line. [citation needed] He does not mention Charles Darwin's theory of evolution, but Darwin referred to Morgan's work in his own. The men intended to resurrect the spirit of the Iroquois. At 600 pages the costs neared 8000 dollars, and at 16 dollars per page of stereotype, it was the most expensive work ever published by the Smithsonian Institution. He introduced a critical link between social progress and technological progress. Berghahn, New York 2019. In Sioux City, Iowa, Morgan received the news from his wife. At that time the U.S. government was selling lands previously confiscated from the natives in cases where the sale benefited the public good. Morgan has little to say of language and does not consider it an important part of his classification, but what little there is can be found in Chapter 3. The Lewis Henry Morgan Lecture is a distinguished lecture held annually by the Department of Anthropology at the University of Rochester.Begun in 1963, the lectures honor the career and seminal research of American anthropologist Lewis H. Morgan. This warfare exacerbated the failure of the army to protect the American Indians against depredations and encroachment by white settlers. Morgan was not quite the social reformer some would believe him to be. Dewey. Morgan anticipated that William H. Seward would be elected president, and outlined to him plans to employ the natives in the manufacture and sale of Indian goods.[32]. (Thomsen and Worsaae are credited with the foundation of scientific archaeology, as they worked to have controlled excavations in which artifacts could be evaluated by which were found together: the beginning of stratigraphy. [40] After suffering years of poverty and attempt to suppress their cultures, American Indians were admitted to citizenship in 1924. Morgan held no consistent views on the war. Parker was present at the surrender of General Lee; to Lee's remark that Parker was the "true American" (as an American Indian), he responded, "We are all Americans here, sir.". [citation needed]. The tables were arranged in three sets based on linguistic-geographical groups: I. This original theory became less relevant because of the Darwinian revolution, which demonstrated how change happens over time. The implementation of assimilation policy was more difficult than either man had anticipated. Following the United States' victory against the British, the new government forced the latter's Iroquois allies to cede most of their traditional lands in New York and Pennsylvania to the US. Although the Upper Peninsula was known for its great natural beauty, the discovery of iron persuaded Morgan and others to develop wide-scale mining and industrialization of the peninsula. Morgan did not run with any agenda except his own as it pertained to the Iroquois. Rivers' student A. R. Radcliffe-Brown was also highly critical of Morgan, but had an extensive knowledge of Systems of Consanguinity which he used as a basis for his own seminal studies of Native American kinship patterns. In theory they would then be able to enter American society at large. [35], Morgan did participate indirectly in the war through his company. After joining the Masons, he helped to form the first Masonic lodge in Aurora. When they discovered they had been defrauded, they were galvanized to action.

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